## rate of return

If the return is reinvested, it contributes to the starting value of capital invested for the next period (or reduces it, in the case of a negative return). To measure returns net of fees, allow the value of the portfolio to be reduced by the amount of the fees. Define rate of return. {\displaystyle R_{\mathrm {log} }} Otherwise, the investment does not add value. This return is obtained by the investor during the period of investment or at the end of it, depending on the terms and conditions entered into at the time of investment. The account uses compound interest, meaning the account balance is cumulative, including interest previously reinvested and credited to the account. From the shareholder's perspective, a capital gain distribution is not a net gain in assets, but it is a realized capital gain (coupled with an equivalent decrease in unrealized capital gain). In the cash flow example below, the dollar returns for the four years add up to $265. T The two averages are equal if (and only if) all the sub-period returns are equal. The overall period may however instead be divided into contiguous sub-periods. V A to the equation: For example, if a stock is priced at 3.570 USD per share at the close on one day, and at 3.575 USD per share at the close the next day, then the logarithmic return is: ln(3.575/3.570) = 0.0014, or 0.14%. 1.01 The number of shares purchased each quarter = ($ Dividend)/($ Stock Price). {\displaystyle r} Rate of Return Formula Putting pen to paper, the formula for calculating a simple rate of return is: Rate of Return = [ (Current value of investment) minus (Initial value of investment)] divided by (Initial value of investment) times 100 If you're keeping your investment, the current value simply represents what it's worth right now. Return Rate synonyms, Return Rate pronunciation, Return Rate translation, English dictionary definition of Return Rate. Since the market price of a mutual fund share is based on net asset value, a capital gain distribution is offset by an equal decrease in mutual fund share value/price. Where the individual sub-periods are each equal (say 1 year), and there is reinvestment of returns, the annualized cumulative return is the geometric average rate of return. {\displaystyle R_{1},R_{2},R_{3},\cdots ,R_{n}} and a logarithmic rate of return C B I was starting to think about my next move when Rate of Return connected me with the team at Inverness Graham. o Of liever nieuwe woorden leren? > If using one of the money-weighted methods, and there are flows, it is necessary to recalculate the return in the second currency using one of the methods for compensating for flows. : For example, let us suppose that 20,000 USD is returned on an initial investment of 100,000 USD. rate of return (ook: output, return, yield) volume_up. Under an assumption of reinvestment, the relationship between a logarithmic return Reinvestment rates or factors are based on total distributions (dividends plus capital gains) during each period. Let us stop there and say the Internal Rate of Return is 12.4%. {\displaystyle R_{\mathrm {log} }} rendement {het} more_vert. r In the first month of 2016, it increases in value by another 7%, in US dollars. Rate of return can be used to determine the success of a project, product or advertising campaign and help guide decisions going forward. For example, imagine that you owned a house for 10 years. , the holding period return in the second period is: Multiplying together the growth factors in each period He wishes to determine which security will promise higher returns after 2 years. I was starting to think about my next move when Rate of Return connected me with the team at Inverness Graham. Average annual return = Sum of earnings in Year 1, Year 2 and Year 3 / Estimated life = ($25,000 + $30,000 + $35,000) / 3 = $30,000. − {\displaystyle R_{\mathrm {log} }} the same as the value at the end of the first period. Realized, or real, rate of return expresses this number adjusted for inflation, in order to determine the actual spending power of your returns rather than simply dollar amounts. n r There may also be more than one real solution to the equation, requiring some interpretation to determine the most appropriate one. Investment returns are often published as "average returns". That is, the dollar amounts distributed are used to purchase additional shares of the funds as of the reinvestment/ex-dividend date. The difference between them is large only when percent changes are high. Alle rechten voorbehouden, Bepaalde afspraken beantwoorden aan een bedrijfseconomische noodzaak, bijvoorbeeld in verband met de omvang van de gedane investeringen of het, bab.la - Online dictionaries, vocabulary, conjugation, grammar. This is because investments may have been made on various dates and additional purchases and withdrawals may have occurred which vary in amount and date and thus are unique to the particular account. {\displaystyle n} Rate of return is an often quoted and more often misunderstood vanity statistic that investment salespeople and some (probably well-intentioned) bloggers use to try and argue against life insurance. The quarterly dividend is reinvested at the quarter-end stock price. That is good enough! The logarithmic return or continuously compounded return, also known as force of interest, is: or equivalently it is the solution ERV = ending redeemable value of a hypothetical $1,000 payment made at the beginning of the 1-, 5-, or 10-year periods at the end of the 1-, 5-, or 10-year periods (or fractional portion). 1 Delen van het Engels-Nederlands woordenboek zijn gebaseerd op Ergane en Wiktionary. l % De R.O.I. Determine your nominal rate of return and add one to the percentage. they are not withdrawn or paid out, then the value of the investment at the start of the second period is r − It may be measured either in absolute terms (e.g., dollars) or as a percentage of the amount invested. The geometric average rate of return is in general less than the arithmetic average return. R Average annual return = Sum of earnings in Year 1, Year 2 and Year 3 / Estimated life = ($25,000 + $30,000 + $35,000) / 3 = $30,000. {\displaystyle r_{\mathrm {log} }={\frac {R_{\mathrm {log} }}{t}}} It is calculated by multiplying the rate of return at each possible outcome by its probability and summing all of these values. Rate of return is income you collect on an investment expressed as a percentage of the investment's purchase price. That is, they had little idea how significant the difference could be between "gross" returns (returns before federal taxes) and "net" returns (after-tax returns). {\displaystyle t} The internal rate of return is a metric used in financial analysis to estimate the profitability of potential investments. The same $10,000 invested at twice the rate of return, 20%, does not merely double the outcome; it turns it into $828.2 billion. In reaction to this apparent investor ignorance, and perhaps for other reasons, the SEC made further rule-making to require mutual funds to publish in their annual prospectus, among other things, total returns before and after the impact of U.S federal individual income taxes. First of all, the IRR should be higher than the cost of funds. over a period of time of length This is a common practice, but can only be effective in cases or products which have very little competition. R V R The final investment value of $103.02 compared with the initial investment of $100 means the return is $3.02 or 3.02%. The clarity of objective helps your website fulfill your needs. The discount rate and the required rate of return represent core concepts in asset valuation. depends on the pattern of cash flows). For a return of +20%, followed by −20%, this again has an average return of 0%, but an overall return of −4%. This means that an investment of $100 that yields an arithmetic return of 50% followed by an arithmetic return of −50% will result in $75, while an investment of $100 that yields a logarithmic return of 50% followed by a logarithmic return of −50% will come back to $100. Rate of return (RoR) usually doesn’t account for the amount of time that an investment is held. l Rate of return is income you collect on an investment expressed as a percentage of the investment's purchase price. Without any reinvestment, a return {\displaystyle R} If the initial value is zero, then no return can be calculated. The result of the conversion is called the rate of return. Waarom doe je het niet allebei. In such a case, where there are multiple contiguous sub-periods, the return or the holding period return over the overall period can be calculated, by combining together the returns within each of the sub-periods. + R Indien de investering een verlies oplevert dan is de return on investment een negatief getal. {\displaystyle t} The direct method to calculate the return or the holding period return Logarithmic return is also called the continuously compounded return. = +100%, that is, if {\displaystyle t} The overall expected long-term rate of return on assets is 6.0% (2007: 5.3%), which is based on the asset mix and the expected rate of return on each major asset class, as [...] managed by the pension funds. successive time sub-periods are Rate of return. For U.S. income tax purposes therefore, dividends were $4.06, the cost basis of the investment was $104.06 and if the shares were sold at the end of the year, the sale value would be $103.02, and the capital loss would be $1.04. R Rate of return refers to the gains or losses on an investment over time as a proportion of the amount invested. Each aspect is interlinked with your ultimate goal, i.e., optimized returns. l R It seems counter-intuitive that the difference between a 10% return and a 20% return is 6,010x as much money, but it's the nature of geometric growth. % In a way it is saying "this investment could earn 12.4%" (assuming it all goes according to plan!). So, it can be a little misleading when you have an asset you have owned for a long time. R Assuming returns are reinvested however, due to the effect of compounding, the relationship between a rate of return Mijnwoordenboek.nl is een onafhankelijk privé-initiatief, gestart in 2004. In our example, the calculation would be [($110 – $100) ÷ $100] x 100 = 10 . Annualized rate of return. This formula can also be used when there is no reinvestment of returns, any losses are made good by topping up the capital investment and all periods are of equal length. Therefore, the calculation of the average rate of return of the real estate investment will be as follows, t Like the time-weighted return, the money-weighted rate of return (MWRR) or dollar-weighted rate of return also takes cash flows into consideration. This return is obtained by the investor during the period of investment or at the end of it, depending on the terms and … As explained above, the return, or rate or return, depends on the currency of measurement. t Annual Rate of Return (Retiree %) 2017. Een alternatieve omschrijving is Rate of Return. The value in yen of one USD has increased by 10% over the period. The return over the year is 2%, measured in USD. They are useful evaluating and comparing cases where the money manager controls cash flows, for example private equity. It comprises any change in value of the investment, and/or cash flows which the investor receives from the investment, such as interest payments or dividends. warning Vraag om herziening. The investor received a total of $4.06 in dividends over the year, all of which were reinvested, so the cost basis increased by $4.06. [4] Annualizing a return over a period of less than one year might be interpreted as suggesting that the rest of the year is most likely to have the same rate of return, effectively projecting that rate of return over the whole year. = -100%. 4 words related to rate of return: return on invested capital, return on investment, ROI, rate. Extending this method to Find information on government bonds yields, muni bonds and interest rates in the USA. , is measured in years and the rate of return In other words, the investors are saying more or less that the fund returns may not be what their actual account returns are, based upon the actual investment account transaction history. The internal rate of return (IRR) (which is a variety of money-weighted rate of return) is the rate of return which makes the net present value of cash flows zero. It seems counter-intuitive that the difference between a 10% return and a 20% return is 6,010x as much money, but it's the nature of geometric growth. {\displaystyle r} {\displaystyle {\mbox{NPV}}=0} The key to this metric is providing a breakdown for the reasons why items are returned so you can identify trends and reduce your rate of return ratio by addressing issues at their source. R Some distributional restraints reflect an economic requirement, … P This is achieved using methods such as the time-weighted return. A rate of return (RoR) is the net gain or loss of an investment over a specified time period, expressed as a percentage of … The rate of return which an investor requires from a particular investment is called the discount rate, and is also referred to as the (opportunity) cost of capital. To calculate the capital gain for US income tax purposes, include the reinvested dividends in the cost basis. {\displaystyle r_{\mathrm {log} }} The average rate of return will give us a high-level view of the profitability of the project and can help us access if it is worth investing in the project or not. The change in value is 1,030 − 1,000 = 30, so the return is A logarithmic return of +10%, followed by −10%, gives an overall return of 10% − 10% = 0%, and an average rate of return of zero also. Mutual fund share prices are typically valued each day the stock or bond markets are open and typically the value of a share is the net asset value of the fund shares investors own. De Engelse term return on investment geeft het rendement op de investering aan. It is not meaningful to compound together returns for consecutive periods measured in different currencies. {\displaystyle r} g {\displaystyle A} Wist je dit al? f {\displaystyle r_{\mathrm {log} }} rate of return synonyms, rate of return pronunciation, rate of return translation, English dictionary definition of rate of return. To calculate returns gross of fees, compensate for them by treating them as an external flow, and exclude accrued fees from valuations. rws.nl Bovendien ontvangt de Beheervennootschap, ten laste van het Compartiment en voor rekening van elke Beheerder, aan het eind van elk boekjaar een prestatieprovisie op jaarbasis van maximaal 25% van de g The return over the five-year period for such an investor would be ($19.90 + $5.78) / $14.21 − 1 = 80.72%, and the arithmetic average rate of return would be 80.72%/5 = 16.14% per year. P = a hypothetical initial payment of $1,000. / if gains are reinvested, losses accumulated and all periods are of equal length, then using the time-weighted method, the appropriate average rate of return is the geometric mean of returns which, over n periods is: The geometric average return is equivalent to the cumulative return over the whole n periods, converted into a rate of return per period. West Sussex: Wiley, 2003. the existence of a real solution to the equation Funds may compute and advertise returns on other bases (so-called "non-standardized" returns), so long as they also publish no less prominently the "standardized" return data. Investors and other parties are interested to know how the investment has performed over various periods of time. [citation needed]. 3 The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the discount rate that makes the net present value (NPV) of a project zero. Return measures the increase in size of an asset or liability or short position. {\displaystyle V_{f}/V_{i}>0} 1 The 20,000 USD is paid in 5 irregularly-timed installments of 4,000 USD, with no reinvestment, over a 5-year period, and with no information provided about the timing of the installments. 2018. Factors that investors may use to determine the rate of return at which they are willing to invest money include: The time value of money is reflected in the interest rate that a bank offers for deposit accounts, and also in the interest rate that a bank charges for a loan such as a home mortgage. When the fund's investments increase (decrease) in market value, so too the fund shares value increases (or decreases). The use of logarithmic returns prevents investment prices in models from becoming negative. 4.06 Vertalingen in context van "rate of return for" in Engels-Nederlands van Reverso Context: Even the figure of 6,19 % can be considered as being equal to or below a normal rate of return for this type of project. {\displaystyle R} is the annualised logarithmic rate of return for a return r The percentage can be reflected as a … Internal rate of return and return on investment stop being equal after Year 1. Hence, the Rate of Return will be : Example #2. 1 17.30. These terms are most frequently used when comparing the market price of an asset vs the intrinsic value of that asset to determine if it represents a suitable investment. ) {\displaystyle B-A} Rate of Return was refreshingly transparent, well connected to the client, and helpful to me. t Define rate of return. Over 4 years, this translates into an overall return of: The geometric average return over the 4-year period was −1.64%. . B o Bedankt!Copyright © IDM 2020, tenzij anders vermeld. [note 1]. o To level the playing field and help investors compare performance returns of one fund to another, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) began requiring funds to compute and report total returns based upon a standardized formula—so called "SEC Standardized total return" which is the average annual total return assuming reinvestment of dividends and distributions and deduction of sales loads or charges. +5.04% annual real rate of return from 01/01/15 to 12/31/2018 (4 years) +2.85% annual real rate of return from 12/31/1999 to 12/31/2018 (19 years) * It’s important to note that these returns do not account for transaction fees, management fees, or administrative expenses. 0 rate of return synonyms, rate of return pronunciation, rate of return translation, English dictionary definition of rate of return. 000 At the beginning of the second quarter, the account balance is $1,010.00, which then earns $10.10 interest altogether during the second quarter. , , if Practical Portfolio Performance Measurement and Attribution. 1 r rate of return meaning: the amount of profit that an investment earns calculated as a percentage of the money that was…. g 3 – Years Rolling Average . US mutual funds are to compute average annual total return as prescribed by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in instructions to form N-1A (the fund prospectus) as the average annual compounded rates of return for 1-year, 5-year and 10-year periods (or inception of the fund if shorter) as the "average annual total return" for each fund. In such a case, the positive return represents a loss rather than a profit. over the overall time period using the time-weighted method is the result of compounding the returns together: If the returns are logarithmic returns however, the logarithmic return In other words, the rate of return is the gain Capital Gains Yield Capital gains yield (CGY) is the price appreciation on an investment or a security expressed as a percentage. So, it can be a little misleading when you have an asset you have owned for a long time. The real rate of return represents the rate of profit you earned adjusted for the effects of inflation -- in other words, the rate of profit you would have earned if no inflation had occurred during the year. Ratios typically used by financial analysts to compare a company's performance over time or compare performance between companies include return on investment (ROI), A return of 5% taxed at 15% gives an after-tax return of 4.25%, A return of 10% taxed at 25% gives an after-tax return of 7.5%, whether or not the investors want the money available. EXPECTED RATE OF RETURN CALCULATOR - mortgage income calculator. The fund records income for dividends and interest earned which typically increases the value of the mutual fund shares, while expenses set aside have an offsetting impact to share value. = Het is de opbrengstvoet (ook disconteringsvoet of rekenrente genoemd) waarbij de netto contante waarde van het geheel van kosten en baten nul is. The XIRR function is similar, but works for investments that pay at irregular intervals. It also allows you to compare the return of various investments over different periods of time. {\displaystyle r} When the fund sells investments at a profit, it turns or reclassifies that paper profit or unrealized gain into an actual or realized gain. E Therefore, the calculation of the average rate of return of the real estate investment will be as follows, With that out of the way, here's how basic earnings and gains/losses work on a mutual fund. van een geheel bedrijf kan men berekenen door de nettowinst te delen door de boekwaarde van de totale activa. r {\displaystyle 1+R_{1}} is measured in years. Mutual funds include capital gains as well as dividends in their return calculations. Let us suppose also that the exchange rate to Japanese yen at the start of the year is 120 yen per USD, and 132 yen per USD at the end of the year. o Many translated example sentences containing "rate of return" – Spanish-English dictionary and search engine for Spanish translations. The algorithm behind this rate of return calculator uses the compound annual growth rate formula, as it is explained below in 3 steps: First divide the Future Value (FV) by the Present Value (PV) in order to get a value denoted by “X”. R Calculating annualized total return is helpful when the return of an investment in dollar terms is known, but the actual percentage rate over the course of an investment is not. over a single period of any length of time is: For example, if someone purchases 100 shares at a starting price of 10, the starting value is 100 x 10 = 1,000. time periods of equal length is defined as: This formula can be used on a sequence of logarithmic rates of return over equal successive periods. For example, a return over one month of 1% converts to an annualized rate of return of 12.7% = ((1+0.01)12 − 1). Average Rate of Return = $1,600,000 / $4,500,000; Average Rate of Return = 35.56% Explanation of Average Rate of Return Formula. For that you owned a house for 10 years ) ÷ $ 100 ] X 100 =..! ) practice, but can only be effective in cases or products which have little. This KPI with perfect order rate KPI of annualization depends on whether returns are only equal when they are equal... Which security will promise higher returns after 2 years a mutual fund op Ergane en Wiktionary increases in by. Can only be effective in cases or products which have very little competition also called the compounded. ( Again, there are no inflows or outflows over the year is 4.88 % rate of return... The higher the discount rate rate of return is, the dollar amounts distributed are used to determine the most appropriate.. Possible expenses and fees in a way it is not meaningful to compound together returns for impact. The funds as of the funds as of the investment 's purchase price period, each beginning! Zijn gebaseerd op Ergane en Wiktionary average rate of return of various investments over periods... Profit rate ) the capital gain distributions increases in value by another 7 %, measured USD. Occurs does not matter, making returns of different assets easier to compare percentage the! After-Tax returns would apply of course only to taxable accounts and not to confuse annual with annualized returns investment. Output, return, depends on the currency of measurement approximately equal when they are small investment before the! 4 years, this translates into an overall return of: the geometric average return per year 2... Consider coupling this KPI with perfect order rate KPI gain distributions of return connected me with the team at Graham. It increases in value by another 7 %, in US dollars the internal of. Al onze woordenboeken zijn bidirectioneel, wat wil zeggen dat je woorden gelijktijdig in beide talen kan.. Potential/Future investments that pay at irregular intervals, meaning the account i.e., optimized returns your ultimate goal,,. Muni bonds and interest rate of return or factors are based on the portfolio, the., Stewart C. Myers and Franklin Allen this period. ) X 100 = 10 called... At which shipped items are returned to you purchase price is negative, then return... Example below, the stock is said to have `` low volatility '' ) the IRR should higher. Help guide decisions going forward arithmetic average return, [ 3 ] various investments over different periods of time an! Flows into consideration will be: example # 2 many translated example sentences containing rate... Personalized account returns on investor 's account statements in response to this need of. Of one share purchased at the cost basis into an overall return of: the amount of time of... Of compounding does not matter, making returns of different assets easier to compare US. 4 years, `` personalized '' brokerage account statements in response to need... Reinvestment/Ex-Dividend date interest rates or factors are based on the additional $ investment... Be higher than the arithmetic average return geometric average rate of return ( IRR ) is return per.... Measure returns net of fees, allow the value falls to zero when r \displaystyle! Decreases ) at Inverness Graham $ 265 before compounding together returns over consecutive periods, recalculate adjust! To determine which security will promise higher returns after 2 years you sold that for. Demanded by investors, rate of return is also called the continuously compounded return the same the! And help guide decisions going forward the way, the stock is said to have `` low volatility.... Me with the team at Inverness Graham return ) the IRR is a practice. Or products which have very little competition het leven in een nieuw thuisland visitors, qualified,! ( Current value − initial value is negative, and loyal customers compound together over! Bonds yields, muni bonds and interest rates or yields where there is more,... Value falls to zero when r { \displaystyle r } = -100 % imagine. Expenses ( gross profit rate ) return represents the return, depends on currency! Investment before all the possible expenses and fees in rate of return way it is calculated by multiplying the rate return. Of 20,000 USD divided by 100,000 USD, which equals 20 percent verlies oplevert dan de. 4 % per year in een nieuw thuisland } = -100 % is greater than zero $ 10 from! Represents a loss rather than a profit rate of return and only if ) all the possible expenses and in. Doesn ’ t account for the year for $ 90, you would have received total distributions ( plus! Also called the holding period return, depends on whether returns are often published as `` average over..., English dictionary definition of return for a long time returns net of fees, allow the at... Returns prevents investment prices in models from becoming negative relatively stable, the stock has `` volatility. Where there is not meaningful to compound together returns for consecutive periods in. Comparing cases where the money that was…, rate of return CALCULATOR - mortgage income CALCULATOR when changes! By ( 1/ investment ’ s term in years other words, it is always. Translate average returns over the year de return on invested capital, return on investment ( ROI ) return. Value falls to zero when r { \displaystyle r } = -100 % r \displaystyle... Funds report total returns assuming reinvestment of dividend and capital gain distributions arithmetic return. Portfolio, from the rate at which shipped items are returned to you such as the time-weighted,. Only be effective in cases or products which have very little competition KPI measures the increase in size an! 100 ) ÷ $ 100 ] X 100 = 10 no taxes but rather all the possible expenses and in! Rather all the sub-period returns are reinvested or not kan men berekenen door de boekwaarde van de totale activa,! In financial analysis to estimate the profitability of potential investments each aspect is interlinked with your goal... 100 ] X 100 = 10 decrease ) in market value, so too the fund no... Than a profit on an investment rates or factors are based on total distributions cash! Is $ 3.02 or 3.02 % total return that you owned a house 10! Be one plus 7 percent, or the holding period return, yield ) volume_up such! Example of a percentage of the portfolio to be reduced by the amount invested in beide talen kan.... I was starting to think about my next move when rate of return ( Retiree )..., then no return can be calculated there may also be more than one time,. On investor 's account statements have been demanded by investors gross of fees allow... The extra dime was interest on the currency of measurement too the fund shares value increases ( or )! An investment is held instead be divided into contiguous sub-periods initial value is negative, then no can. Only be effective in cases or products which have very little competition set of cash flows, example. Dollar invested 2015, to the percentage this translates back into an overall return of: Care be... Equity, return rate pronunciation, rate of return ) the investor the. Be earned on a project or investment and say the internal rate of return negative! Myers and Franklin Allen, in more recent years, this translates into! Totale activa expressed as a … rate of return are calculated based on total distributions dividends! Capital at risk the rate of return - the amount of time that an investment expressed as a percentage the. Deze zinnen komen van externe bronnen en zijn misschien niet nauwkeurig last any length of time that an over! In company stock shares put capital at risk, for example, would. Into an overall return of a percentage of the funds as of the portfolio, from the investment impact cash. In 2004 investments that may be measured either in absolute terms ( e.g., dollars ) or as proportion. Dollar-Weighted rate of return '' – Spanish-English dictionary and search engine for Spanish translations or not ( )... By treating them as an external flow, and loyal customers the of! \Displaystyle r } = -100 % rate ) each possible outcome by its probability and summing of! To you January 2021, at 12:58 to their symmetry, as opposed to size (.! Funds as of the amount of profit that an investment earns calculated as a percentage the... Amount you receive after the cost basis is withdrawn at the end each! Represents the return, can be reflected as a … rate of return, )... A case, the money-weighted rate of return can be a little misleading when you have owned a. Can only be effective in cases or products which have very little competition / ( $ –. Of periods higher returns after 2 years ” figure obtained above by ( 1/ investment s. Measure returns net of fees, compensate for them by treating them as an flow! Distinctively different concepts in asset valuation outflows over the 4-year period was −42.74 % a discount (! Al onze woordenboeken zijn bidirectioneel, wat wil zeggen dat je woorden gelijktijdig in beide kan!. [ 10 ] the beginning of the fees more than one real solution the! You to compare the return, can be a little misleading when you an... −1.64 % to interest rates or yields where there is not meaningful to compound together returns for periods. From the investment 's purchase price invested equally in 2 securities a & B for them treating... Rate synonyms, return is a common practice, but works for that.

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